Reduce the Rate of Cost for the Input Used to Produce the Output

Use the same type of input and the same activities, but pay less for the unit of input employed in producing the output. A reduction in rate is equivalent to a reduction in the number of inputs for the same ICD. For example, if a person who makes $10 per hour could produce the same amount of output as a person making $20 an hour, the substitution of the $10 person for the $20 person in the process would be equivalent to cutting the number of people required to do the work by 50%.

A. Purchase in Larger Quantities:

Purchase in larger quantities to get lower unit prices. In most markets a customer who purchases in larger quantities gets a lower unit price than one who purchases in smaller quantities. These concepts increase the amount of purchases the company makes at one time.

Offer security in return for lower rate: Offer employees job security

No. Industry SIC Year Notes
1 0 1993 Labor Unions are changing. At AT&T, Goodyear, Xerox, and Ford, union members are helping make management decisions, and giving up wage concessions to help save jobs by making industries more competitive.
2 2300 1991 When workers at Farris Fashions threatened to form a union, the owner of the factory vowed to close the factory. Workers then voted against having a textile union try to negotiate a contract for them.
3 3312 1991 A United Steelworkers strike was averted when USX agreed to modest pay increases and precedent-setting job guarantees for union members in the event USX sells its steel operations.
4 3465 1988 Champion sold DeVilbiss Co., made factories more efficient, and satisfied union demands for more job security, winning a new contract with a minimal wage increase.
5 4111 1990 In March 1987, CED persuaded workers to accept 22% wage cuts, explaining that the alternative was to shut down the company.
6 4512 1991 In 1983, AMR negotiated a two-tiered wage system whereby newly hired people were paid 50% below the existing rates. In exchange, the unions received job security.

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