Reduce the Rate of Cost for the Input Used to Produce the Output

Use the same type of input and the same activities, but pay less for the unit of input employed in producing the output. A reduction in rate is equivalent to a reduction in the number of inputs for the same ICD. For example, if a person who makes $10 per hour could produce the same amount of output as a person making $20 an hour, the substitution of the $10 person for the $20 person in the process would be equivalent to cutting the number of people required to do the work by 50%.

D. Use subsidies offered by third parties to reduce total rate:

While the company may pay the regular price to the vendor of the product, subsidies available in the market place may reduce this effective rate by offsetting part or all of the purchase price.

Use spousal benefits

Industry SIC Year Notes
1 5331 1995 At Wal-Mart, only 41% of its workforce actually got health insurance through the company in 1993.
2 7361 1988 Most temps are women (95% at Manpower), and many get medical and other benefits through their spouse's job.

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