89A-Cisco’s New Server Product
Cisco recently announced that it was entering the server market. Details are sketchy right now, but we might take a brief look at what Cisco needs to do to be successful. We will use the Customer Buying Hierarchy as our analytical tool.
A bit of background. Cisco is entering the market for servers in order to increase the amount of the global IT purchase that it is able to address. Cisco claims that today it addresses about 10% of the total annual purchase of IT products. With the introduction of its server product, it believes that it will address 25% of that market.
But growth is not all that is pushing Cisco in the direction of servers. Hewlett Packard looms. Over the last few years, HP has developed and improved its ProCurve networking gear product line. This product line competes directly with Cisco routers and switches. Cisco may feel compelled to respond to HP’s forays into its market by counter-attacking in the server market. (See the Symptom and Implication, “Some competitors proliferate products around the heart of the market” on StrategyStreet.com.)
The Customer Buying Hierarchy holds that customers buy using four criteria: Function, Reliability, Convenience and Price. They use these criteria in that order for all purchases. Let’s use that Customer Buying Hierarchy to evaluate what we know of Cisco’s offering.
Function: Function refers to the characteristics of the product that affect the way the product is used by the customer. It includes all the features of a product. Cisco is entering the high-end of the server market, where margins are good and there seems to be some product differentiation among the competitors. We don’t know anything about the server itself, but the company’s offering integrates the server, networking components, data storage and virtualization software in one integrated package. It appears that the company is offering the hardware/software equivalent of Microsoft’s Windows/Office products. Everything works seamlessly together. These functions individually are not unique. The unique function is that they are all integrated together already in one package. This may give the customer a greater sense that the components will work well together. And it may enable some customers to avoid the cost of services they have needed previously to integrate these components in their IT locations. Cisco is offering a clear functional improvement.
Reliability: Reliability refers to the consistency with which the company delivers on promises made or implied to the customer by its product. There is good news and bad news here for Cisco. The good news is that the company has a sterling reputation for Reliability. Industry analysts claim that Cisco is rarely the Function leader in the industry, but Cisco treats their customers very well and ensures that the customer never gets in trouble using Cisco. It has a powerful reputation with customers as someone you can count on. So, what is the bad news? Cisco’s reputation for Reliability resides in network gear, not in servers. In servers, IBM and Hewlett Packard also have sterling reputations as companies capable of and willing to deliver superb customer service. IT customers trust all three of these companies. But if push comes to shove, wouldn’t the average IT customer trust IBM or HP more in the server product line? Cisco has a hurdle to overcome here. It must find a way to ensure customers that it will help them avoid all potential products from the new Cisco server. This may not be an easy task.
Convenience: This term refers to the ease with which the customer may acquire the product. Cisco looks to be in very good shape. There are several good companies who have signed on to add technology and sales to the Cisco product. Among the partners are such names as Accenture, EMC, Microsoft, VMWare, Red Hat and BMC Software. Customers will have no trouble finding the product and buying it.
Price: We don’t know what Cisco plans to charge for its new server product. One thing is certain. Its price has to be lower than a customer could purchase a high-end blade server and the services to install it. The new product line’s major benefit is that it integrates a number of components already available on the market. (See the Symptom and Implication, “Competitors are changing features of the product” on StrategyStreet.com.) Cisco cannot charge more for the integration than the customer would pay to someone else for a final integrated product. In fact, Cisco will have to demonstrate to the customer that it is clearly cheaper to purchase their product than a blade server and accompanying integration services from HP or IBM. Pricing is a big unknown here.
Since we don’t know pricing, we cannot reach a final conclusion. However, Cisco has taken on a big challenge here. This will not be easy. In order for this new initiative to produce the kind of results that Cisco hopes for, it is likely that its competitors, HP and IBM, are going to have to fail their customers in some way to enable HP to gain a major share of the market. Current IBM and HP customers are likely to grant these companies time to copy the unique benefits Cisco offers. In most mature markets, competitor failure is as important as a product benefit win in moving market share. (See the Symptom and Implication, “Share is tougher to shift” on StrategyStreet.com.) HP and IBM could fail if they do not create an equivalent benefit and then match Cisco’s prices. This is a tough challenge, but Cisco has met tough challenges before.
Cisco’s market entry using a Function innovation failed. Many other competitors, most of them smaller than Cisco, offered more tailor-made Functions. This is another example of the danger of competing on a unique Function. See HERE for an explanation.
In 2021, HP was the major brand leading the vendor server market with 15.7% of the market. Dell followed closely at 15.6%. Inspur Power Systems, China’s major competitor in the market, came in at 9.4% while Lenovo and IBM had seven and 5% respectively. The overall leader in the market was the original design manufacturer (ODM) group with 26.7% of the market. Cisco left the market in 2018 while it still had a little over 4% of the total market. The importance of the ODM group suggests that all competitors must tailor their systems to individual customers in order to succeed in the market. This takes away the main Function advantage that Cisco offered with its server introduction.
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