Final Customer Purchasing from the Product Producer

Use Steps: Use steps include all the customer's value added activities or the consumption of the product itself. These steps include all the costs the customer incurs in employing the product in its intended use.

Resources: Reduce resources required for the use of the product

Energy: Reduce the energy the customer uses with the product

A. Effort – Reduce the physical constraints on the customer

Overcome physical limitations of the user
Alter dimensions
Make product smaller

Adapt product for individual use

No. SIC Year Note
1 2000 1991 Campbell needs product innovation if it wishes to increase volume. Introduced individual soups for kids, healthy soups.
2 2000 2004 Tropicana said Light 'n Healthy is its most success new product since calcium fortified orange juice in 1997, adding that it plans to expand the line into single-serve packages and larger cartons.
3 2813 2004 Air Liquide, the French producer of industrial gases found a way to produce gasses in small plants on-site at customers' factories. Staff is stationed permanently at client sites -putting them in a prime position to help customers improve operating efficiency and increase output quality. These teams are given greater autonomy and able to act on new opportunities. These high-margin services constitute about 25% of Air Liquide's revenues.
4 4931 1992 Co-generation once was cost-effective only for large industrial operations. But small systems based on automotive engines have made the idea affordable for laundromats, motels and other commercial operations.

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